A Fully Electric Vehicle (FEV) can be charged using different types of technologies, namely standardised conductive charging and inductive contactless charging, while being stationary or while driving (CWD). While both solutions are considered in the eCo-FEV project, each charging mode faces different technical and management challenges.
The main challenges faced by the commonly studied FEV charging modes concern the in-vehicle system, the infrastructure charging system as well as the payment management. The eCo-FEV project takes into account both contact and wireless inductive charging solutions and works on the optimization of their applicability.
Standard conductive charging
Charging by conduction works with direct electrical contact between the power point and the vehicle´s battery. For standard charging, a cable is used to supply the vehicle with driving energy. This process can take several hours using standard 220 volts outlets. While quick charging offers an alternative using a cable which decreases the charge time to less than 30 minutes due to dedicated high voltage and high power outlets. In eCo-FEV, real time availability information and booking services concerning charging spots (C/S) will play a decisive role.
Charge While Driving (CWD)
CWD is a customer transparent and seamless EV charging technology which allows vehicles to avoid being physically connected to the EV charging infrastructures. It is a technology suitable for reducing the size and weight of batteries and, sometimes, of vehicles while increasing the efficiency of natural resource exploitation, e.g. lithium. Multiple R&D challenges exist for this charging mode concerning the vehicle and infrastructure as well as the charging management and billing side.
Within eCo-FEV, CWD will be examined as an option for the FEV battery charging. Therefore, reliable charging solutions will be identified and tested to facilitate future implementation and market introduction. eCo-FEV´s in-vehicle development will consist of dedicated antennas and a shielding system.
Contactless Power Transfer (CPT)
CPT solutions face problems regarding the distance between transmitting and receiving antennas as well as their misalignment. These systems cannot provide enough useful energy at a great distance and their efficiency can be very low. eCo-FEV focuses CPT solutions in the context of magnetic resonance coupling and small antennas. However, in the requirements and specification phase, alternative technologies will be explored in order to select the most promising one(s).
It is more relevant that the eCo-FEV project takes the issue of the co-existence of charging modes one step forward, by providing charging modes that can be independent from the charging management functionality. This is possible by designing a flexible eCo-FEV architecture for different charging infrastructures.